# v1.8 (14 Apr 2015)

This document explains the changes made to Iris for this release (View all changes.)

## Features

Showcase: Rotate winds

Iris can now rotate and unrotate wind vector data by transforming the wind vector data to another coordinate system.

For example:

```
>>> from iris.analysis.cartography import rotate_winds
>>> u_cube = iris.load_cube('my_rotated_u_wind_cube.pp')
>>> v_cube = iris.load_cube('my_rotated_v_wind_cube.pp')
>>> target_cs = iris.coord_systems.GeogCS(6371229.0)
>>> u_prime, v_prime = rotate_winds(u_cube, v_cube, target_cs)
```

Showcase: Nearest-neighbour scheme

A nearest-neighbour scheme for interpolation and regridding has been added
to Iris. This joins the existing `Linear`

and
`AreaWeighted`

interpolation and regridding schemes.

For example:

```
>>> result = cube.interpolate(sample_points, iris.analysis.Nearest())
>>> regridded_cube = cube.regrid(target_grid, iris.analysis.Nearest())
```

Showcase: Slices over a coordinate

You can slice over one or more dimensions of a cube using
`iris.cube.Cube.slices_over()`

.
This provides similar functionality to `slices()`

but with almost the opposite outcome.

Using `slices()`

to slice a cube on a selected
dimension returns all possible slices of the cube with the selected
dimension retaining its dimensionality. Using
`slices_over()`

to slice a cube on a selected
dimension returns all possible slices of the cube over the selected
dimension.

To demonstrate this:

```
>>> cube = iris.load(iris.sample_data_path('colpex.pp'))[0]
>>> print(cube.summary(shorten=True))
air_potential_temperature / (K) (time: 6; model_level_number: 10; grid_latitude: 83; grid_longitude: 83)
>>> my_slice = next(cube.slices('time'))
>>> my_slice_over = next(cube.slices_over('time'))
>>> print(my_slice.summary(shorten=True))
air_potential_temperature / (K) (time: 6)
>>> print(my_slice_over.summary(shorten=True))
air_potential_temperature / (K) (model_level_number: 10; grid_latitude: 83; grid_longitude: 83)
```

`iris.cube.CubeList.concatenate()`

now works with biggus arrays and so now supports concatenation of cubes with deferred data.Improvements to NetCDF saving through using biggus:

A cube’s lazy data payload will still be lazy after saving; the data will not be loaded into memory by the save operation.

Cubes with data payloads larger than system memory can now be saved to NetCDF through biggus streaming the data to disk.

`iris.util.demote_dim_coord_to_aux_coord()`

and`iris.util.promote_aux_coord_to_dim_coord()`

allow a coordinate to be easily demoted or promoted within a cube.`iris.util.squeeze()`

removes all length 1 dimensions from a cube, and demotes any associated squeeze dimension`DimCoord`

to be a scalar coordinate.`iris.cube.Cube.slices_over()`

, which returns an iterator of all sub-cubes along a given coordinate or dimension index.`iris.cube.Cube.interpolate()`

now accepts datetime.datetime and netcdftime.datetime instances for date or time coordinates.Many new and updated translations between CF spec and STASH codes or GRIB2 parameter codes.

PP/FF loader creates a height coordinate at 1.5m or 10m for certain relevant stash codes.

Lazy aggregator support for the

`standard deviation`

aggregator has been added.A speed improvement in calculation of

`iris.analysis.cartography.area_weights()`

.Experimental support for unstructured grids has been added with

`iris.experimental.ugrid()`

. This has been implemented using UGRID.`iris.cube.CubeList.extract_overlapping()`

supports extraction of cubes over regions where common coordinates overlap, over multiple coordinates.Warnings raised due to invalid units in loaded data have been suppressed.

Experimental low-level read and write access for FieldsFile variants is now supported via

`iris.experimental.um.FieldsFileVariant`

.PP loader will return cubes for all fields prior to a field with a problematic header before raising an exception.

NetCDF loader skips invalid global attributes, raising a warning rather than raising an exception.

A warning is now raised rather than an exception when constructing an

`AuxCoordFactory`

fails.Supported

`aux coordinate factories`

have been extended to include:

`ocean sigma coordinate`

,

`ocean s coordinate`

,

`ocean s coordinate, generic form 1`

, and

`ocean s coordinate, generic form 2`

.

`iris.cube.Cube.intersection()`

now supports taking a points-only intersection. Any bounds on intersected coordinates are ignored but retained.The FF loader’s known handled grids now includes

`Grid 21`

.A

`nearest neighbour`

scheme is now provided for`iris.cube.Cube.interpolate()`

and`iris.cube.Cube.regrid()`

.`iris.analysis.cartography.rotate_winds()`

supports transformation of wind vectors to a different coordinate system.NumPy universal functions can now be applied to cubes using

`iris.analysis.maths.apply_ufunc()`

.Generic functions can be applied to

`Cube`

instances using`iris.analysis.maths.IFunc`

.The

`iris.analysis.Linear`

scheme now supports regridding as well as interpolation. This enables`iris.cube.Cube.regrid()`

to perform bilinear regridding, which now replaces the experimental routine “iris.experimental.regrid.regrid_bilinear_rectilinear_src_and_grid”.

## Bugs Fixed

Fix in netCDF loader to correctly determine whether the longitude coordinate (including scalar coordinates) is circular.

`iris.cube.Cube.intersection()`

now supports bounds that extend slightly beyond 360 degrees.Lateral Boundary Condition (LBC) type FieldFiles are now handled correctly by the FF loader.

Making a copy of a scalar cube with no data now correctly copies the data array.

Height coordinates in NAME trajectory output files have been changed to match other NAME output file formats.

Fixed datatype when loading an

`integer_constants`

array from a FieldsFile.FF/PP loader adds appropriate cell methods for

`lbtim.ib = 3`

intervals.An exception is raised if the units of the latitude and longitude coordinates of the cube passed into

`iris.analysis.cartography.area_weights()`

are not convertible to radians.GRIB1 loader now creates a time coordinate for a time range indicator of 2.

NetCDF loader now loads units that are empty strings as dimensionless.

### v1.8.1 (03 Jun 2015)

The PP loader now carefully handles floating point errors in date time conversions to hours.

The handling fill values for lazy data loaded from NetCDF files is altered, such that the _FillValue set in the file is preserved through lazy operations.

The risk that cube intersections could return incorrect results due to floating point tolerances is reduced.

The new GRIB2 loading code is altered to enable the loading of various data representation templates; the data value unpacking is handled by the GRIB API.

Saving cube collections to NetCDF, where multiple similar aux-factories exist within the cubes, is now carefully handled such that extra file variables are created where required in some cases.

## Deprecations

The original GRIB loader has been deprecated and replaced with a new template-based GRIB loader.

Deprecated default NetCDF save behaviour of assigning the outermost dimension to be unlimited. Switch to the new behaviour with no auto assignment by setting

`iris.FUTURE.netcdf_no_unlimited`

to True.The former experimental method “iris.experimental.regrid.regrid_bilinear_rectilinear_src_and_grid” has been removed, as

`iris.analysis.Linear`

now includes this functionality.

## Documentation

A chapter on merge and concatenate has been added to the user guide.

A section on installing Iris using conda has been added to the install guide.

Updates to the chapter on regridding and interpolation have been added to the user guide.