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Docstrings

Every public object in the Iris package should have an appropriate docstring. This is important as the docstrings are used by developers to understand the code and may be read directly in the source or via the Iris API.

This document has been influenced by the following PEP’s,

For consistency always use:

  • """triple double quotes""" around docstrings.

  • r"""raw triple double quotes""" if you use any backslashes in your docstrings.

  • u"""Unicode triple-quoted string""" for Unicode docstrings

All docstrings should be written in reST (reStructuredText) markup. See the reST Quick Start for more detail.

There are two forms of docstrings: single-line and multi-line docstrings.

Single-Line Docstrings

The single line docstring of an object must state the purpose of that object, known as the purpose section. This terse overview must be on one line and ideally no longer than 80 characters.

Multi-Line Docstrings

Multi-line docstrings must consist of at least a purpose section akin to the single-line docstring, followed by a blank line and then any other content, as described below. The entire docstring should be indented to the same level as the quotes at the docstring’s first line.

Description

The multi-line docstring description section should expand on what was stated in the one line purpose section. The description section should try not to document argument and keyword argument details. Such information should be documented in the following arguments and keywords section.

Sample Multi-Line Docstring

Here is a simple example of a standard docstring:

def sample_routine(arg1, arg2, kwarg1="foo", kwarg2=None):
    """
    Purpose section text goes here.

    Description section longer text goes here.

    Args:

    * arg1 (numpy.ndarray):
        First argument description.
    * arg2 (numpy.ndarray):
        Second argument description.

    Kwargs:

    * kwarg1 (string):
        The first keyword argument. This argument description
        can be multi-lined.
    * kwarg2 (Boolean or None):
        The second keyword argument.

    Returns:
        numpy.ndarray of arg1 * arg2

    """
    pass

This would be rendered as:

documenting.docstrings_sample_routine.sample_routine(arg1, arg2, kwarg1='foo', kwarg2=None)[source]

Purpose section text goes here.

Description section longer text goes here.

Args:

  • arg1 (numpy.ndarray):

    First argument description.

  • arg2 (numpy.ndarray):

    Second argument description.

Kwargs:

  • kwarg1 (string):

    The first keyword argument. This argument description can be multi-lined.

  • kwarg2 (Boolean or None):

    The second keyword argument.

Returns

numpy.ndarray of arg1 * arg2

Additionally, a summary can be extracted automatically, which would result in:

documenting.docstrings_sample_routine.sample_routine(...)

Purpose section text goes here.

Documenting Classes

The class constructor should be documented in the docstring for its __init__ or __new__ method. Methods should be documented by their own docstring, not in the class header itself.

If a class subclasses another class and its behaviour is mostly inherited from that class, its docstring should mention this and summarise the differences. Use the verb “override” to indicate that a subclass method replaces a superclass method and does not call the superclass method; use the verb “extend” to indicate that a subclass method calls the superclass method (in addition to its own behaviour).

Attribute and Property Docstrings

Here is a simple example of a class containing an attribute docstring and a property docstring:

class ExampleClass:
    """
    Class Summary

    """

    def __init__(self, arg1, arg2):
        """
        Purpose section description.

        Description section text.

        Args:

        * arg1 (int):
            First argument description.
        * arg2 (float):
            Second argument description.

        Returns:
            Boolean.

        """
        self.a = arg1
        "Attribute arg1 docstring."
        self.b = arg2
        "Attribute arg2 docstring."

    @property
    def square(self):
        """
        *(read-only)* Purpose section description.

        Returns:
            int.

        """
        return self.a * self.a

This would be rendered as:

class documenting.docstrings_attribute.ExampleClass(arg1, arg2)[source]

Purpose section description.

Description section text.

Args:

  • arg1 (int):

    First argument description.

  • arg2 (float):

    Second argument description.

Returns

Boolean.

a

Attribute arg1 docstring.

b

Attribute arg2 docstring.

property square

(read-only) Purpose section description.

Returns

int.

Note

The purpose section of the property docstring must state whether the property is read-only.